Mitochondrial plasticity in brachiopod (Liothyrella spp.) smooth adductor muscle as a result of season and latitude

first_imgHabitat temperature and mitochondrial volumedensity (Vv(mt,mf)) are negatively correlated in fishes, while seasonal acclimatization may increase Vv(mt,mf) or thesurface density of the mitochondrial cristae (Sv(im,mt)). The effect of temperature on invertebrate mitochondria isessentially unknown. A comparison of two articulate brachiopod species, Liothyrella uva collected from RotheraStation, Antarctica in summer 2007, and Liothyrellaneozelanica collected from Fiordland, New Zealand inwinter 2007 and summer 2008, revealed a higher Vv(mt,mf)in the Antarctic brachiopod. The Sv(im,mt) was, however,significantly lower, indicating the Antarctic brachiopodshave more, less reactive mitochondria. L. uva, from thecolder environment, had larger adductor muscles in bothabsolute and relative terms than the temperate L. neozelanica.Furthermore, a seasonal comparison (winter vs.summer) in L. neozelanica showed that the absolute andrelative size of the adductor increased in winter, Vv(mt,mf)was unchanged, and Sv(im,mt) was significantly increased.Thus, seasonal acclimatization to the cold resulted in thesame number of more reactive mitochondria. L. neozelanicawas clearly able to adapt to seasonal changes using adifferent mechanism, i.e. primarily through regulation ofcristae surface area as opposed to mitochondrial volumedensity. Furthermore, given the evolutionary age of theseliving fossils (i.e. approximately 550 million years), thissuggests that mitochondrial plasticity has roots extendingfar back into evolutionary history.last_img read more

Nigeria’s Injury List Grows As Another Midfielder Is Injured

first_imgNigerian Midfielder, Mikel Agu, is the latest player to join the Super Eagles growing injury list.Mikel is now a doubt for Nigeria ahead of the final round of 2018 World Cup qualifiers this weekend.The 24-year-old defensive midfielder faces a race to be fit in time for the Super Eagles matches against Algeria and Argentina on November 10 and 14 respectively. The player was substituted 45 minutes into Bursaspor’s 2-2 draw with Kasimpasa on Saturday because he was still nursing an injury.A source said, “Mikel felt some pains before the match against Kasimpasa, so the coach had to replace him after the first half.”“His manager did not want him to worsen the injury. Bursaspor doctors have carried out tests on Mikel and they said the injury is not too serious.”This adds to the injury list that has; Victor Moses, Elderson Echiejile, Odion Ighalo and Moses Simon. Leon Balogun is also reportedly short of match fitness.RelatedMikel Obi, John Ogu Hit Eagles CampMay 24, 2018In “National Team”Rohr Unveils 23-man Squad For Zambia ShowdownSeptember 26, 2017In “National Team”INSIDE AFCON 2019: Mikel Obi to Miss Third Place Clash Against Tunisia (AUDIO)July 16, 2019In “AFCON”last_img read more