Developing a nowcasting capability for X‐Class solar flares using VLF radiowave propagation changes

first_imgA technique for analysing very low frequency (VLF) radiowave signals is investigated in order to achieve rapid, real‐time detection of large solar flares, through the monitoring of changes in VLF radio signal propagation conditions. The reliability of the use of VLF phase and amplitude perturbations to determine the X‐ray fluxes involved during 10 large solar flare events (>X1) is examined. Linear regression analysis of signals from the NPM transmitter in Hawaii, received at Arrival Heights, Scott Base, Antarctica over the years 2011‐2015 shows that VLF phase perturbations during large solar flares have a 1.5‐3 times lower mean square error when modelling the long wavelength X‐ray fluxes than the equivalent short wavelength fluxes. The use of VLF amplitude observations to determine long or short wavelength X‐ray flux levels have a 4‐10 times higher mean square error than when using VLF phase. Normalised linear regression analysis identifies VLF phase as the most important parameter in the regression, followed by solar zenith angle at the mid‐point of the propagation path, then the initial solar X‐ray flux level (from 5 min before the impact of the solar flare), with F10.7 cm flux from the day beforehand providing the least important contribution. Transmitter phase measurements are more difficult to undertake than amplitude. However, networks of VLF receivers already exist which include the high quality phase capability required for such a nowcasting product. Such narrowband VLF data can be a redundant source of flare monitoring if satellite data is not available.last_img read more

Photo of Aaron Jones gaming while girlfriend readies to give birth sparks social media debate

first_imgIn an attempt to clarify the situation, Jones quote-tweeted a critical response.”That’s wild she told me to bring the game with me,” Jones wrote. “But u know nothing about the whole process of having a child so til you experience it dont speak on me !!!!”Thats wild she told me to bring the game with me 😊but u know nothing about the whole process of having a child so til you experience it dont speak on me !!!!— Aaron Jones 3️⃣3️⃣ (@Showtyme_33) July 4, 2020Here are some of the exchanges regarding the moment:Aaron is the epitome of being thoughtful. People don’t even know the details of how long and when he was playing. Either way Crystal clearly didn’t care since she posted it, so why does it bother you?. People are so quick to judge before they even know the situation.— Allen Lazard (@AllenLazard) July 4, 2020I’m not goin stand for any slander on my boys name. He’s too elite of a human being to be called trash. Sorry but ain’t goin fly wit me.— Allen Lazard (@AllenLazard) July 4, 2020lol stop explaining yaself bra. congrats ❤️— Alvin Kamara (@A_kamara6) July 4, 2020Honestly bro, it’s funny if sis thought it was funny! Congrats on the addition to the fam!!! I need pics for my wallet!— Ty Montgomery (@_WiFi_Ty_) July 4, 2020Was i just suppose to stare at her the whole time while she was studying and sleep ???— Aaron Jones 3️⃣3️⃣ (@Showtyme_33) July 3, 2020Probably pretty good… and inferring he wouldn’t based on the information provided is pretty crappy— Caroline’s Dad (@Carolinesdad15) July 4, 2020 What Packers running back Aaron Jones and his girlfriend Crystal Molina considered a funny photo from their trip to the hospital has led to intense back-and-forths on social media.In the photo, Jones is sitting in the hospital with a makeshift gaming setup before Molina gives birth, controller in hand and Whataburger drink on the table. He later said he was attempting to pass time before she became fully dilated. MORE: Brett Favre on how Packers should use Jordan LoveSome people — including WNBA player Kelsey Plum — responded to the photo by calling it disrespectful. Others have come to the Green Bay star’s defense.last_img read more